Indian Religions | Far Eastern Relogions | Semitic Religions | Mythology

Mythology is the study and interpretation of stories, particularly those of ancient civilizations. The beliefs of ancient man had a major effect on his behaviour and actions and is therefore of great use in understanding anthropological and archaeological data. The three areas of mythology that had the greatest effect in the British Isles were: Celtic, Roman and Norse.

British | Greek and Roman | Norse | Egyptian | Mythical Lands


At the centre of all Celtic mythology was the Earth Goddess, a symbol of life and fertility. Much of the ideology was based upon the concepts of Earth power, a system of lines and nodes upon which monuments and temples were built. The few written records are contained in the Irish 'Book of Leinster' and 'Book of the Dun cow' and the Welsh 'Mobinogian'.


The early Greeks worshipped the Earth (Ge or Gaia) as a symbol of life and fertility. Her husband was Uranus, the heavans. Their children were called the Titans.

The height of the religion was at about the time of ancient Greece when the Olympians emerged along with many other minor dieties. These beliefs were absorbed into the Roman empire in the 2nd century BC and adapted to match their own.

Aphrodite  Venus Goddess of sexual love.
Apollo   God of light and prophesy.
Ares Mars God of War.
Artemis Diana Virgin huntress, goddess of nature.
Athena Minerva Patroness of wisdom and power.
Dementer Ceres Earth goddess
Dionysus Baccus God of wine
Hephaistos  Vulcan  God of fire.
Hera  Juno  Queen of the Olympians
Hermes  Mercury  Messenger of the Gods
Hestia  Vesta  Goddess of health.
Poseidon  Neptune  God of the sea and horsemanship
Zeus  Jupiter  Father of man. God of the sky


Norse mythology is related in two books: the Poetic Edda, a collection of laws and the Prose Edda which details the formation of earth and thereafter man.

The story reveals that a giant, Ymir, emerged from the Great Void. A giantess was born from his armpit and she married Buri, ancestor of the Gods. Ymir was slain by the children of Buri who fashioned the earth from his carcass and named it Midgard which was joined to Asgard, home of the gods, by the bridge Bifrost. The two races of gods were the Aesir and Vanir.


Before the rise of the ancient kingdom the folk tales and stories of the Nile valley were merged together in about 3100BC to form a complex religion around Ra, the sun god. The pharaohs became Horus the son of Isis and Osiris, he embodied the power of the sun and the annual renewal of life along the Nile. Mythically by defeating Seth his right of judgement and divine status was assured.

Amun God of Thebes
Anubis God of Necropolis, jackel headed
Bastet Cat goddess
Hathor Goddess of joy, music and marriage
Horus Falcon headed god, relates to the pharaoh
Isis Goddess of fertility, divine mother
Khepri Scarab god, identifies with Ra
Nephthys Friend of the dead at judgement
Osiris God of the dead
Ptah Creator of Memphis and patron of craftsmen
Re or Ra  Sun god of Heliopolis, supreme judge
Seth God of violence and storms
Thoth Ibis headed scribe of the gods, inventor of writing


Atlantis. A sunken continent west of Gibralter.

Hyperborea.  Sunny land beyond the north wind.

Lemuria.  Sunken continent south-east of Indo-china.

ultima Thule.  The northernmost land, perhaps Iceland, Norway or the Shetlands.

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